Overview of the artificial sweeteners in the US.

Overview of the artificial sweeteners in the US.

Artificial sweeteners are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  • As of 2013, only five artificial sweeteners are approved on the USA market.
  • Approximately 15% of the total United States population above the age of 2 years use artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not (From: NIH.gov).
  • Artificial sweeteners are not allowed in the organic food (from: USDA.gov)

Saccharin

Status: Approved in US

From May 1980 to December  2010 was listed as a hazardous substances by the EPA. Listing was removed upon request from the Calorie Control Council, a group “representing the low-calorie and reduced-fat food and beverage industry”.

Manufactured from 1901 by Monsanto (From: epa.gov)

Causes skin irritation (From: osha.gov)

Causes weight gain (From: NIH.gov)

Genotoxic potential confirmed using comet assay test (From: NIH.gov)

Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) rating: AVOID

Sucralose

Status: Approved in US

Marketed as: Splenda

Alters gut microflora and increases body weight gain (From: NIH.gov)

Limits the bioavailability (absorption) of orally administered drugs (From: NIH.gov)

Accumulates in the environment and affects behavior of the animals in the wild (from: NIH.gov)

Affects insulin production (from NIH.gov)

Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) rating: Caution

Aspartame

Status: Approved in US

Marketed as: Equal, NutraSweet

Compared with sugar, induces greater weight gain at similar total caloric intake levels (From: NIH.gov)

Severe adverse reactions in people with mood disorders (From: NIH.gov)

It is not strictly non-caloric (4 Kcal/g) and forbidden in people with phenylketonuria (From: NIH.gov)

Formaldehyde is produced in the body as aspartame is being digested (from NIH.gov)

At the body temperature (above 86F / 30C), the wood alcohol in aspartame coverts to formaldehyde and then to formic acid, which in turn causes metabolic acidosis. The methanol toxicity mimics multiple sclerosis; thus people may be misdiagnosed with having multiple sclerosis. (From: NIH.gov)

Genotoxic potential confirmed using comet assay test (From: NIH.gov)

Causes or amplifies headaches in some people (From: NIH.gov)

Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) rating: AVOID

cyclamate

Status: FDA banned the use of cyclamate in US in 1969. (From: cancer.gov)

somehow it is used by Coca-Cola (From: SEC.gov section 11)

Acesulfame potassium (aka Acesulfame-K)

Status: Approved in US

Marketed as: Sunett and Sweet One

Genotoxic potential confirmed using comet assay test (From: NIH.gov)

Environmental Contaminant (From: Arizona dept of environmental quality )

Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) rating: AVOID

Neotame

Status: Approved in US

Marketed as: NutraSweet

Invented and named by Monsanto (From: gpo.gov)

relatively recent approved noncaloric food product (from: NIH.gov)

Neotame is the most potent sweetener on the market, at 7,000 times the sweetness of sucrose (sugar). (From: NIH.gov)

Neotame is chemically related to aspartame, but it is chemically more stable, enabling this sweetener to be used in baked foods (From: NIH.gov)

No independent studies have been published on Neotame. Only 4 results come up in PubMed search for Neotame toxicity, of which 2 studies are done by the Nutrasweet themselves, and the other two are not  studies.

Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) rating: SAFE

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